my doctoral thesis in 1977, I wrote about the effects of the
media upon youth culture
(Philosophy of Divine Nutrition-1977).
and Youth Culture
part of that writing, I focused on the lack of multi cultural
and female super heroes within popular comic books. The Black
Panther is recognized as one of the first non stereotyped
super heroes of color. He is an African King who rules the
nation of Wakanda. My sincere thanks to The Marvel Directory,
Christopher Priest and Wikipedia for their information on
this most important character. To have lived long enough to
see African American and Female owned and created comic book
characters, publishing companies and web sites dedicated to
those multi cultural characters, fills me with great joy.
Name: T'Challa (pronounced Challa)like Tchaikovsky-Also
pronounced with a hard T sound (Ta Challa)
Occupation: King of
Legal Status: Citizen of Wakanda
Identity: Publicly known
Other Aliases: Luke Charles, Black Leopard,Daredevil
Place of Birth: Wakanda, Northern Africa
Marital Status: Married/Divorced -Storm (Ororo
Known Relatives: T'Chaka (father, deceased),
N'Yami (mother, deceased), Khanata, Joshua Itobo, Ishanta,
Zuni (cousins), Jakarra (half brother)
Group Affiliation: The Avengers v.1 #52,
formerly Fantastic Force
Base of Operations: Wakanda, mobile
First Appearance: FANTASTIC FOUR v. 1 #52
T'Challa is the son of T'Chaka, who was the Black Panther
some point in the distant past, a massive meteorite comprised
of the sound-absorbing mineral Vibranium crashed in Wakanda,
and was only recently unearthed. Knowing that other, more
powerful nations would attempt to manipulate and dominate
Wakanda for this rare and valuable resource, T'Chaka concealed
Wakanda from the outside world. He would sell off minute amounts
of the valuable Vibranium while at the same time sending Wakanda's
best scholars to university abroad, his goal being to make
Wakanda one of the most technologically advanced nations in
eventually the explorer Ulysses Klaw found his way to Wakanda,
and using lies and subterfuge covered up his work on a Vibranium-powered
sound-based weapon. When he was exposed, Klaw killed T'Chaka
and many other Wakandans, only for his "sound blaster"
to be turned on him by a grieving 13 year old T'Challa. Klaw's
right hand was destroyed by the overloaded sonic weapon, and
he and his men fled.
was educated at several prestigious universities in the U.S.
and Europe, earning advanced degrees in physics (Ph.D.), engineering,
economics, political science and psychology.
ascend to the throne of Wakanda he was required to pass two
tests: defeat six of Wakanda's greatest warriors in unarmed
combat, and obtain the secret heart-shaped herb that grants
the country's chieftains their powers (
Fantastic Four Unlimited
#1). Successfully carrying out the dual challenge,
T'Challa donned the ceremonial garb of the Black Panther,
totem of the Wakandan people.
T'Challa, Wakanda has become one of the wealthiest and most
technologically advanced nations on the planet, fulfilling
the dreams of his father.
Fantastic Four #52,
we are introduced to T'Challa as a young king who wants to
test the abilities of the World's Mightiest Super-Team. Having
successfully beaten them one by one, he would have conquered
them all had not Wyatt Wingfoot( Native American friend of
FF), asleep in the back of the car, intervened.
for his deception, the Panther then joined forces with the
FF to battle the deadly Klaw, finally avenging himself and
an adventure to prevent Baron Zemo's plan to activate an orbital
death ray platform(Tales of Suspense
#97-99, Captain America #100), a grateful Captain America
sponsored the Black Panther for membership into the Avengers#52.
T'Challa accepted, but his true motives for joining were to
learn whether or not these American "heroes" were
a threat to Wakanda.
was many years later that the Avengers found this out in Black
Panther v.2 #8. For
several years, The Black Panther assumed the role of a super
hero and even adopted a "secret" identity as Harlem
school teacher Luke Charles.
During his time with the Avengers, he met social worker and
jazz singer Monica Lynne. Their relationship was rocky at
best due to the strains of being involved with a super hero
as well as a King.
out of his country for so long a period of time found T'Challa's
throne threatened by Erik Killmonger. The
role of Black Panther briefly fell into the hands of T'Challa's
rival Killmonger when he defeated T'Challa in ritual combat,
only for Killmonger to "die" upon eating the heart-shaped
herb. T'Challa regained his authority in the minds of his
people. Killmonger would also return.
Black Panther became an Avenger in 1968 (Avengers
origin was retold in Avengers
#87. When the
Black Panther first joined the Avengers, he shortened his
name to " The Panther".He also wore a mask that
revealed his lower jaw.
officially announced his return to Wakanda and leaving
the Avengers in Avengers #88.
Fantastic Four #119,
he changed his name to The Black Leopard.
When The Thing asks him why did he change his name he stated,
" I contemplate a return to your country, Ben Grimm,
where the later term has-political connotations. I neither
condemn nor condone those that have taken up the name--but
T'Challa is a law unto himself. Hence, the new name-- a minor
point, at best, since the panther is a leopard."
When he returned to the Avengers in Avengers
#105, he proclaimed to Hawkeye-"
I am not a stereotype .I am myself-and I am The Black Panther".
Wizard #158, erroneously states that this
occurred in Avengers #101. It is actually
in Avengers #105.
1971, he fought back an attempt by Victor
Von Doom to take over Wakanda in
Tales #6 & 7
1972 at the request of Matt Murdock, he wore the Daredevil
costume in Daredeveil #92
from the pages of Avengers #61
he had his first series in the pages of Jungle
Action #5-24. Oct 1972-
by critically acclaimed Don McGregor as well as Roy Thomas
and drawn by several artists including Gene Colan on covers
as well as interiors by Buckler, Kane and Graham.
Rage" is the first comic that was created from start
to finish as a complete novel.
in two years' issues of Jungle Action
(#'s 6 through 18), "Panther's Rage"
is a 200-page novel that journeys to the heart of the
African nation of Wakanda, a nation ravaged by a revolution
against its king, T'Challa, the Black Panther.
first Team-Up with Spider-Man was in 1974
in Marvel Team-Up #20
where they fought Stegron.Their second
Team Up was in 1979 in Marvel Team Up
#87-where they fought Hell Razor who
was actually a dupe for the Roxxon Corporation. Roxxon's
plan was to acquire Vibranium
One of the Marvel Comics Black Panther
written and illustrated by Jack “King” Kirby
issues #1-15 Jan 1977- May 1979.
1978, he teamed up with The Thing in
Marvel Two in One #40 & 41.
1979 he also appeared in Marvel
where he battled the KKK. This three part story takes place
right after the events of Black Panther #14 & 15.
1988, he appeared in his first
mini series ,
a four part series written by Peter Gillis and penciled by
1989,Panther's Quest was presented in a 25
comic (8 pages average) story arc within the pages of
Marvel Comics presents #13-37
by Donald F. McGregor and drawn by Gene Colan.
sets the stage for the story arc. Titled " A Rumor of
goes to then Apartheid South Africa in search of his mother
who has been kidnapped.
four part Graphic Novel titled Panther's
published between May 1991-Oct of 1991
by Don McGregor and drawn by Dwayne Turner
1991, he closed out the volume Marvel
1993, he appeared in the Marvel
UK comic book Black
Axe- issues #4-7.
introduced the character Afrikaa
1993, he also appeared in Deathlok issues #22-25 written by
assists The Black Panther in fighting Moses Magnum who is
trying to conquer Wakanda.
reappeared with both Spider-Man and
Iron Man for the Vibranium Vendetta
Spider-Man Annual #25, Peter Parker The Spectacular Spider-Man
of Spider-Man Annual #7.
One under the Marvel Knights
by Christopher Priest
and drawn primarily by Mark Texeira,
Almond and Sal Velluto. Nov 1998
Marvel Knights imprint ended with issue #16
until its conclusion with #62
Comics Black Panther Volume two.
new Black Panther-Kevin Casper
Cole was a New
York City Narcotics Officer who finds one of T'Challa's old
costumes and learns the path of Ascension
(#50-62), becoming The White Tiger as a result.
of the covers for these issues were drawn
by Andy Kubert
and the art was done by Dan Farga or Jorge Lucas.
has the longest run of any writer for Black Panther with 62
up somewhat where things ended in #62- The
Crew was a short lived series that revolved around
Rhodey Rhodes of War Machine notoriety as well as the White
February 2005, volume 3 of Marvel Comics MK The Black
Panther series was published.
was written by filmmaker Reginald Hudlin and drawn by artists
John Romita,Jr. and Scott Eaton.
also wrote for the MK Spider-Man series and Romita (JRjr)
is a long time Amazing Spider-Man artist following in the
footsteps of his father John Romita Sr.
to interviews with Mr. Hudlin, this volume of the Black Panther
is going to take a Year One
approach, meaning everything you just read about the
history of the Black Panther may not make it in this version.
least for the first 6 issues Hudlin/JRjr's Panther suit is
based upon the Kirby look compared to the MK look of Priest
Time will tell if the King of Wakanda gets the critical acclaim
that he did under Priest. It appears that Hudlin is sincerely
committed to the character and certainly has the talent to
make the Black Panther a first tier super hero within the
Marvel Universe. I suspect that if successful in popularizing
this character, Hudlin would have first crack at the making
of the movie.
of September 21, 2008, it appears that the Hudlin run on Black
Panther will end with #41. This will be the end of the Secret
Invasion battle in Wakanda.
Marvel Comics nor Hudlin have been forth coming on what the
fate of The Black Panther and Storm will be. It also appears
the Mr. Hudlin has left the employ of BET. This also brings
into question the future of the proposed Black Panther cartoon.
It will be interesting to see how things unfold for The King
of Wakanda. I cannot believe that Marvel has worked so hard
to make him a first tier Super Hero to not continue with another
series. Speculation is that the mini series-X-Men: Worlds
Apart featuring Storm,the X-Men and the people of Wakanda,
will be the kick off point for a new series.
of Mr. Hudlin's demise were greatly exaggerated. While the
"See Wakanda and Die"(#39-41) final arc was written
by Aaron, Reginald Hudlin has continued with the Dark Reign
volume of Black Panther.
T'Challa was severely injured in an explosion perpetrated
by allies of Dr. Doom (DoomWar),
While in a coma, Shuri, T'Challa's sister has assumed the
mantle of Black Panther.
the end of DoomWar, T'Challa has fully recovered from his
injuries. He and Storm are still married.Shuri is now Princess
Regent of Wakanda.
Entertainment has committed to 8 episodes of The Black Panther
animated series to appear on BET under the direction of Reginald
Hudlin.At least that's what we as fans thought was going to
happen.At this writing (11/09)things are still on hold for
the animated series. Unless the stockholders (myself included),
vote down the agreement, Marvel Entertainment will be owned
by Disney. I think its a great thing.
Black Panther animated series did in fact come to fruition
of BET channel. Six of the eight original episodes were aired.
" Episode 1: In a top-secret Washington meeting, Intelligence
Agent Everett Ross briefs the government on the history of
the Black Panther, the warrior king of the African nation,
Wakanda. Meanwhile on the other side of the world, Prince
T'Challa wins an annual Wakanda tournament, and becomes the
Black Panther. Meanwhile, a disastrous man machine hybrid
is built. (Premiere Airdate: 16th January 2010
" Episode 2: Having been crowned the new Black Panther,
T'Challa must contend with jealousy in the royal court while
searching for the man who murdered his father. Unbeknownst
to him, a deadly assassin named Klaw is assembling a team
of super-villains to attack Wakanda. (Premiere Airdate: 16th
" Episode 3: A young T'Challa travels to Egypt and encounters
Storm of the X-Men. While preparing to attack Wakanda, Klaw
recalls how he assassinated the previous Black Panther. (Premiere
Airdate: 23rd January 2010
" Episode 4: Juggernaut and the Black Knight spearhead
the attack on Wakanda, and the Black Panther learns the truth
about his father's murder. (Premiere Airdate: 23rd January
" Episode 5:With Wakanda under siege from Klaw's team
of super-villains, the Black Panther confronts the Black Knight
in aerial combat; Princess Shuri must defend herself against
the deadly Radioactive Man. (Premiere Airdate: 30th January
Episode 6: Klaw has taken control of Wakanda, and the Black
Panther races against time to save his nation from destruction.
(Premiere Airdate: 30th January
the Avengers vs X-Men story arc,
Namor became part of the Phoenix Five. He shared the Phoenix
force with Emma Frost, Cyclops, Magik and Colossus each of
them imbued with a portion of the Phoenix Force to become
the Phoenix Five. A mutant names Transonic is held as a prisoner
in Wakanda. This causes Namor to use his Phoenix power to
create giant tidal waves that swallow humans and buildings
whole, drowning hundreds to thousands of Wakandans. Atlanteans
invade Wakanda destroying most of it.
The Avengers Vs The X-Men 5 part mini
series #5, T'Challa and Storm have a super hero fight
that ends in Storm removing her wedding ring and flying off.
Avengers Vs X-Men #9, T'Challa
announces to Storm that the High Priest
of the Panther Clan has annulled their marriage. T'Challa
is the High Priest of the Panther Clan.
the New Avengers v.3- Namor meets with
T'Challa in secret from the other Illuminati and offers
to make peace with Wakanda. T'Challa informs him he will talk
with his sister about it, but to no avail as Wakanda declares
war. T'Challa meets with Namor in Necropolis and reveals to
him that Namor was lied to by Shuri in her saying she was
considering his offer. While Namor is with T'Challa, Wakanda
makes its move and attacks Atlantis. Namor leaves and heads
back to his kingdom to find it in ruins and his people slaughtered.
January of 2016, Marvel
Studios officially announced that Ryan
Coogler, director/writer of critically acclaimed films
such as Creed & Fruitvale Station, will in fact helm the
eighteenth installment of the Marvel Cinematic Universe -
Black Panther. The film will star Chadwick
Boseman as T'Challa and is expected to hit theaters
February 16, 2018.
president Kevin Feige released this statement about Coogler,
who is easily the most accomplished director Marvel has landed
to date, signing on: "We are fortunate to have such an
esteemed filmmaker join the Marvel family, The
talents Ryan showcased in his first two films easily made
him our top choice to direct 'Black Panther.' Many
fans have waited a long time to see Black Panther in his own
film, and with Ryan we know we've found the perfect director
to bring T'Challa's story to life.
Kings Records----so far!
Panther Box Office records as of Feb 19, 2018
February opening weekend:
non-sequel opening weekend:
solo superhero launch of all time:
Fri-Sun opening weekend for a long holiday debut:
long holiday opening weekend:
opening weekend ever for any movie not directed by a white
movie (in North America) directed by a black filmmaker:
pre-summer opening weekend:
comic book superhero opening weekend:
non-summer opening weekend:
can be found here
Live the King of Wakanda
Weight: 185 lbs.
Level: The Panther’s natural strength
and abilities having been heightened by the heart-shaped herb
administered only to Wakandan kings during a sacred ascension
ritual. The herb is found only in Wakanda. It is estimated
that T'Challa can press over head approximately 750 pounds.
While not considered "super", the heart shaped herb
endows T'Challa with peak human strength, peak human reflexes,
and peak human senses such as enhanced hearing, smell, taste,
and "night" vision.
date, the only other person to partake of the heart shaped
herb who did not die is Peter Parker.
The herb was given to him by T'Challa (Friendly Neighborhood
Spider-Man #2 pgs.14-15) in an attempt at saving his
life in the Other story arc. After explaining to Peter that
only a warrior who is worthy to be a king can ingest of the
heart shaped herb, he is assured by T'Challa that he is indeed
An accomplished gymnast and acrobat, as well as an expert
tracker. T'Challa is a master of several disciplines of African
martial arts as well as ninjitsu techniques of hypnosis and
mind control. The current writer for Black Panther-Reginald
Hudlin, has expressed the idea that the Black
Panther is the greatest fighter in the Marvel Universe!
The Black Panther who fought Captain America in Hudlin's Black
Panther #1 was T'Chaka father of T'Challa.
is also the Black Panther featured in the four part mini series
Flags of our Fathers
Christopher Priest's, Marvel Knights Black Panther's costume
is a Vibranium micro-weave body suit which
not only stops bullets, but saps their momentum.
His boots' are made with Vibranium
soles which can absorb sound and impact this enables
him to leap from structures up to eight stories tall
and land like the jungle cat he is named for.
Panther's retractable claws contain
a new composite of the experimental "anti-metal"
or Antarctic Vibranium that can break down other
alloys. With the use of his claws he can literally
run up the sides of buildings.
T'Challa carries an energy dagger
that can be fired, thrown or handled like a knife.
At its highest setting, the weapon easily can cut
through forged steel.
Milaje "DOR-ah muh-LAH-jay". The
Dora Milaje are also known as the 'adored ones.'
They are highly trained in the
physical arts of combat, and have aided the
king in battle on a number of occasions.
speak only with the king, and when they address him, they
do so in the uncommon Wakandan dialect of Hausa.
of the king's two Dora Milaje is selected from one of the
opposing Wakandan factions. Their position as potential wives
to the king is designed to maintain peace between the two
tribes: The City Dwellers and the Marsh Tribesman. This position
sustains the precarious balance of peace. While the king has
all physical rights to his Dora Milaje, he does not impose
himself upon them. If, however, he were to indulge in their
beauty, they would be unable to take a husband in the future.
that the Black Panther has married, it has not been discussed
what the exact status of the Dora Milaje will be.
The group was founded to secure peace between the eighteen
rival factions of the marsh tribes ofWakanda and the more
technologically advanced capital ruled by the Black Panther.
It is unknown which king specifically founded them though
they were active even in the time of World War 2.
The Dora Milaje or Adored Ones as the name translates in English
(Pronounced dora-meh-LAH-shay) are essentially wives
in training and bodyguards for the King of Wakanda. Wakanda
despite being one of the most technologically advanced place
on Earth also has pockets of rural villages/tribes which make
up the outer rim of the nation. These "Marsh" tribes
often war with each other to determine who is of more value
to the technologically advanced capital of Wakanda. They are
trained usually from an early age, taken from the 18 tribes
of wakanda and presented to the king who decides whether or
not they are worthy of joining the ranks.
A young Dora Milaje in training will speak only to the king
and only in the language of Hausa. She is forbidden from having
any man touch her or touch him. To have this occur is the
biggest shame they can incur.
Various martial arts and those native to Wakanda are incorporated
into one style thus allowing them superior combat prowess
to even the most well-trained outside soldiers and ninja.
Unarmed combat training also incorporates mostly laded weapons
such as swords, spears, nun-chaku, bo-staff etc All Dora Milaje
undergo multi-weapons training through out initial indoctrination.
Only later can they begin specialized training in a single
A successful Dora Milaje trainee is effectively the representative
of her tribe in the capital of Wakanda thus her behavior will
affect how her tribe is perceived and also affects trade with
the capital. (When Nakia went rogue it was stated when her
behavior became public knowledge trade with the other tribes
would cease and civil war would rage)
Training continues well into adulthood though in some instances
Dora are known to leave the order or get discharged.
a Stylized shaving of the head and tribal markings are customary
on all Dora Milaje
The Duo- In Black Panther vol.2 #1 the duo of Okoye and Nakia
are first shown. Both accompanied him to America as his personal
Nakia defected Queen Divine Justice Joined the team.
Midnight Angels- During Doomwar T'challa had a group specially
trained for infiltration and outfitted them with Shadow Physics
technology able to destroy even Vibranium. They infiltrated
Doom's castle and partook in the battle. It's unknown if they
are still together.
Over time, the order of the Dora Milaje expanded considerably,
with more than a dozen active participants from the various
tribes. Their service continued even after T'Challa's marriage
the Civil War, they assisted T'Challa on a few occasions,
because of their quality of body-guarding.When Storm and T'Challa
visited the White House, an incident led the Dora Milaje to
battle War Machine and his Sentinels, and they were subsequently
researched by the US government.
Later, T'Challa intended to meet Captain America, in order
to organize the resistance against the Superhuman Registration
Act, but was followed by the Black Widow. To get rid of her,
T'Challa let two Dora Milaje confront her.
Iron Man and Cape-Killers came to the Wakandan Embassy in
order to arrest the Dora Milaje who had attacked Rhodes, but
was denied access to the embassy by Storm.
After a fight with Doom, who cost the lives of two Dora Milaje
and handicaped him for a time, T'Challa decided to initiate
a specialized fighting style for the Adored Ones so they can
better perform against robots and magic, which are Doom's
primary weapons in battle. T'Challa set up a final test, which
was a real fight, during which two Dora Milaje died among
the thirty candidates.
When Doom tried to take over Wakanda, the Dora Milaje paid
a large tribute, with 500 doras against the 80,000 soldiers
of the Wakandan navy and army. They then were used as Shuri's
army to destroy Doom's global network.
T'Challa intended to kill Doom, sending Deadpool and a commando
of Dora Milaje known as the Midnight Angels.
At the last moments of the War with Thanos, the Dora Milaje
rejected T'Challa, denouncing to Shuri the meetings of her
brother with Namor while war was declared to Atlantis after
Namor attack against Wakanda while he was under the influence
of the Phoenix. They broke their spears symbolically and fully
came under the orders of the Queen Shuri.